は、が、と、に、の… (10 Japanese particles)

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10 Japanese particles

japanese-particles-01-01

 

あなた は すてき
anata wa suteki
you are nice.
“~ wa” = [subject]
あなた が いちばん
anata ga ichiban
you are the best.
“~ ga” = [subject]
あなた と わたし
anata to watashi
you and me
“A to B” = A and B 
あなた わたし
anata ka watashi
you or me
“A ka B” = A or B
あなた の やさしさ
anata no yasashisa
your kindness
“~ no” = [possessive]
あなた を あいしてる
anata wo aishiteru
I love you.
“~ wo” = [object]
あなた わたす
anata ni watasu
give to you
“~ ni” + [verb]
 あなた  おくる
anata e okuru
send to you
“~ e” + [verb]
あなた おとこ
anata mo otoko
you are a boy too.

は vs が

Rule.1
Verb-sentence => ga
  • たかはしさんはせんせいだ。(noun-sentence)
    takahashi san wa sensei da.
  • たかはしさんはやさしい(adjective-sentence)
    takahashi san wa yasashii.
  • たかはしさんくる(verb-sentence)
    takahashi san ga kuru.
Rule.2
The specified object => ga
  • せんせいなのはだれですか?たかはしさんせんせいです。
    sensei nanowa dare desuka? takahashi san ga sensei desu.
Rule.3
excluding others => wa
  • ほかのひとはきませんが、たかはしさんきます。
    hoka no hito wa kimasenga, takahashi san wa kimasu.

All About Particles: A Handbook of Japanese Function Words

に vs で

Both particles are used for place.

Rule
1. [place] + de + [verb of action]
2. [place] + ni + [verb of direction]

example:
こうえん で たべる
to eat at the park
こうえん に いく
to go to the park

こうえん = park, たべる = to eat, いく = to go


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